Book VIII Summary Now that Socrates has finished describing the just city, he returns to the interrupted task of describing the four unjust constitutions of city and man.
Elijah Mwiti Introduction It is evident that the fundamental challenge that has confronted philosophers through out the ages is the relevance their theoretical speculation and the practical needs of their society.
It is in this sense a political thought emerges because politics is a practical aspect of man in any society. To tackle this issue properly the general impression which Plato gives to the reader will be exposed and critically analyzed.
Then, his insights which transcend his Greek culture will be applied in the modern political context. Therefore, he was accustomed to public and had a good education to qualify for public office.
Plato declined the invitation to serve in both the democracy and in the oligarchy. He could not join the system which tried to explicate and the system which killed his friend and teacher, Socrates, a virtuous man. His mission was to reform the society, remeding the whole Athenian life.
This made him to become the philosopher of ideals; the ideal ruler, the ideal citizens and the ideal state. All these three governed by the idea of justice which is harmony, each occupying and performing its role. This political thought is contained in The Republic, In the republic, one of his dialogues which is scholars classify and place in maturity period, when he had consolidated his ideas as a philosopher, Plato postulates that the origin of the State is due to wants of men, the end of man not only in the economic sphere but his happiness.
Men cooperate in the production of the necessities of life, for this to happen effectively there is need for division and specialization of labour. This yields the first class of citizens, the Artisans. Following the principle of division of labour which enhances perfection another class of citizens is created.
This special class of guardians of the state must be spirited, gifted and must be philosophic for them to know who are the real enemies of the state.
Therefore, there is a great need for education because the task of guardianship is to be based on knowledge. So far we have two great classes in the state; then, the important question arises, who should be the ruler of the state?
Plato clearly says that the ruler of the state will be carefully chosen from the class of guardians. He uses the eugenic principles to select a ruler.
At this level the ideal states consists of three great classes; the ruler philosopher kingthe auxiliaries soldiersand artisans common men. The next consideration is what makes them ideal citizens? Plato recognizes the complexity and dynamism of the state political communitythe citizens living in harmony with their diversity.
This existential challenge makes Plato to come up with the myth of the metals, the so called noble lie, a convenient story that persuades rather than forces people, in the modern political language, propaganda.
Plato suggests every one be told that their education was a dream and in reality they were fashioned and reared in the depths of the earth.
All citizens are brothers and born of the same earth. Critically analyzed it is this convenient story which brings justice in the state.
Justice in the platonic sense is each keeping his place and this in practical terms means philosophers ruling and common folks not interfering with the governing of state, their work are to produce. The critical 2 question is; can propaganda stabilize the political community as Plato proposes.
For Plato origin of political community is a matter nature, his conception of state of nature is that it was harmonious, although Glaucon calls it a community of pigs.
For him it is the state which is in charge of instituting such education system. The state is also in charge of every aspect and dimension of the society, including marriage and mating festivals.
This platonic thought indicates that power is concentrated within the central government operated only by the rulers distinguished by their philosophic capacity of which abstract and practical education system will train them in the kind of logical thinking that enables them to grasp the form of The Good.
Plato is usually criticized because of introducing totalitarianism element in his theory, he also is accused of denying freedom of individual and taking communitarian aspect to far.
This shows how he was influence by the Greek mentality. Plato in book eight and nine expound the nature of different constitutions. He explains the nature of aristocracy which is the rule of elite minority, according to him this is the best. If these elite rulers appropriate wealth it turns to timarchy which is rule by those who love wealth.
This later form turns to oligarchy of which political power depends on property qualifications. This lead awareness of manipulation among the masses creating a democracy, but the extravagant love of liberty which characterizes democracy leads to Tyranny, because among the masses arises an individual at first he is the champion of the people who after appropriating power he executes a coup de etat and turns into a tyrant.
Plato strongly criticizes democracy as a form of government. His insights transcend the political challenges of his time to our 3 modern political context. Its pedagogical value is much greater than its practical value.
This is understanding is from the etymology of the word democracy; Demos in Greek is people and Kratos is rule or power. Democracy results to what Plato calls the tyranny of the majority this is because the Athenian democracy of 4th and 5th century B.
E was highly unstable and unchecked, the governmental policies were directly determined by the often changing moods of the people.Dracula has a pretty good example of the Beautiful in Quincey Morris.
One of Lucy's three suitors, he's presented as a cowboy-type from Texas, informal but friendly and honorable.
Strangely, although repeatedly described by his friends as a man of action, he doesn't engage in all that much of it until he suffers a mortal wound fighting the gypsies that . The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man.
It is Plato's best-known work, and has proven to be one of the world's most influential works of philosophy and political theory, both . The corresponding man is a man ruled by spirit. Such a man, Socrates explains, is produced in this way: he is the son of an aristocratic man who encourages the rational part of his son’s soul.
But the son is influenced by a bad mother and servants, who pull him toward the love of money. Most tellingly, Plato affirms that the democratic man “is a manifold man stuffed with most excellent differences, containing within himself the greatest number of patterns of .
People and ideas systems As outlined by Andrew Roberts of Middlesex University, London.
Introductory sketches of the ideas of theorists, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and the Society and Science History kaja-net.comped from a course document "Outline of the theorists we could cover" (February ), the web .
Exposition and critical analysis of Plato’s thought Plato was an Athenian philosopher who lived circa B.C.E., his political thinking is as a result of him .