The name Guatemala, meaning "land of forests," was derived from one of the Mayan dialects spoken by the indigenous people at the time of the Spanish conquest in It is used today by outsiders, as well as by most citizens, although for many purposes the descendants of the original inhabitants still prefer to identify themselves by the names of their specific language dialects, which reflect political divisions from the sixteenth century. Persons of mixed or non-indigenous race and heritage may be called Ladinoa term that today indicates adherence to Western, as opposed to indigenous, culture patterns, and may be applied to acculturated Indians, as well as others. A small group of African—Americans, known as Garifuna, lives on the Atlantic coast, but their culture is more closely related to those found in other Caribbean nations than to the cultures of Guatemala itself.
The Visigoths were Arian Christians, followers of Arius who reasoned that Jesus could not logically co-exist with God and must therefore be subservient to him. Subsequently, the Church was to exert powerful influence on all aspects of social life. Almost immediately, in C. Both Muslims and Jews built a civilization, based in Cordobaknown as Al-Andalus, which was more advanced than any civilization in Europe at that time.
Jews were able to coexist peacefully with their neighbors; however, they were still treated as dhimmis"People of the Book" Jews and Christians who are protected under Islamic law. Jews did not have complete autonomy and had to pay a special tax, the jizhabut were able to freely practice their religion.
Jewish intellectual and spiritual life flourished and many Jews served in Spanish courts. Jewish economic expansion was unparalleled. In Toledo, Jews were involved in translating Arabic texts to the romance languages, as well as translating Greek and Hebrew texts into Arabic.
Jews also contributed to botany, geography, medicine, mathematics, poetry and philosophy. A number of well-known Jewish physicians practiced during this period, including Hasdai Ibn Shaprutwho was the doctor for the Caliph leader of Spain.
Many famous Jewish figures lived during the Golden Age and contributed to making this a flourishing period for Jewish thought. Jews lived separately in aljamas Jewish quarters. They were given administrative control over their communities and managed their own communal affairs. Jews had their own court system, known as the Bet Din.
Rabbis served as judges and rendered both religious and civil legal opinions. Islamic culture also influenced the Jews. Muslim and Jewish customs and practices became intertwined. For example, Arabic was used for prayers rather than Hebrew or Spanish. Before entering the synagogueJews washed their hands and feet, which is a practice done before entering a mosque.
Arab melodies were used for Jewish songs. Jews wore the clothing style of their Moorish neighbors, although they were not allowed to wear silk or furs. Jews lived peacefully in Al-Andulus for years. The Golden Age for Jewry in Muslim Spain declined after the Almovarids gained power in and continued to deteriorate after the Almohads came to power in Jews continued to work as moneylenders, jewelers, cobblers, tailors and tanners, however, they had to wear distinguishing clothing, such as a yellow turban.
Both Jews and Muslims were involved in the cultural, economic, intellectual, financial and political life of Christian Spain. By the midth century, the Christians controlled most of Spain and increasingly forced Jews to convert to Christianity.
Those who converted became known as Marranos or New Christians. Marranos are also known as crypto-Jews because they taught their children and practiced Judaism in secret. During this period, Jews were forced to participate in "religious" disputes with Christians counterparts.
Anti-Jewish riots broke out in in several Spanish cities and the situation worsened for the Jewish community. New Christians were tortured or killed in the Spanish Inquisition during the 15th century.
Father Tomas de Torquemada felt that if the Jews remained in Spain, then they would influence the new converts to Christianity.
InIsabella and Ferdinand commanded that all Jews who refused to convert to Christianity be expelled from Spain.In Wales, Jones is especially common (% of the population) because of the Welsh habit of naming themselves after their father.
Indeed, in November , a new world record was established for a gathering of the most people with the same surname when 1, people called Jones gathered at the Wales Millennium Centre in Cardiff.
There are some ancient Christian doctrines that only the Catholic Church has retained. One such doctrine is her teaching on contraception, which was the unanimous teaching of the Church Fathers, and which all Christians shared for nineteen centuries until the Lambeth Conference of At that conference the Anglican Church decided to permit the use of contraceptives, and were soon followed by.
The Catholic Church has stood, since its inception, firmly against the use of any artificial methods of contraception. In fact, it is the only Christian institution that, as a whole, has held this teaching consistently for all of Christian history.
And if anyone can figure out decent ways for a Robin-Hanson-ian em-clan to put together a similar sort of internal legal system for its members, and can describe how cultural-evolutionary pressures would lead em-clans to tend towards any particular systemic details, I would love to read about it.
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Arab Americans trace their ancestral roots to several Arab countries. Lebanon is the homeland of a majority of Arab Americans, followed by Syria, Palestine, Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, and Jordan.