It is not the case that all children with a history of speech and language difficulties have associated literacy problems. However, school-age children whose speech difficulties persist beyond 5 years of age are most at risk for associated difficulties in reading, spelling and sometimes maths. Let us first consider the nature of persisting speech difficulties with reference to a simple psycholinguistic model of speech processing. This illustrates that we receive spoken information through the ear input.
In general, a key indicator of dyslexia is to do with literacy skills such as reading, writing and spelling. On the other hand, dyspraxia veers more towards movement and planning difficulties. However, as both are terms used to describe a collection of symptoms that can vary greatly between individuals, perhaps a more important question is what do these two learning difficulties have in common.
For example, did you know that co-morbidity occurs for about half the people who are dyslexic i.
Dyspraxia impacts on motor coordination skills and can cause children and adults to perform movements poorly and out of order. It is neurological and affects everything from preparing to organising and performing movements, sometimes extending into speech and memory ability.
Dyspraxia can upset articulation of spoken language as well as thought process and perception. Symptoms in young children may present as developmental delays, feeding and sleeping difficulties, high sensitivity to noise and a lack of interest in construction toys, including building blocks and Legos.
Adults can lack hand-eye coordination, have poor balance and struggle to grasp small objects or perform daily grooming routines. Compromised coordination greatly affects everyday activities for individuals with dyspraxia, causing difficulties in school activities like reading and writing, as well as recreational activities like riding a bike and driving a car.
Learn more about how to help dyspraxic children in the classroom. There is some controversy about a definition of dyslexiabut in The British Dyslexia Association Management Board accepted the following: It is likely to be present at birth and to be life-long in its effects.
It can also impact on working memory. Learn more about teaching strategies to help dyslexic children in the classroom. What do dyslexia and dyspraxia have in common? Dyslexic and dyspraxic children and adults tend to be holistic problem solvers and intuitive, creative thinkers. Nonetheless, they both impact on learning style, as organisation and memory are involved to varying degrees.
People who are dyslexic and dyspraxic thus find that learning often takes longer and is more tiring than for others without Specific Learning Difficulties. Individual learners will benefit greatly from identifying their own relevant learning strategies.
A unique learning style means that they may struggle to learn by traditional methods. Particularly where dyslexia and dyspraxia have not been identified, frustration and failure in school are common and likely to affect self-esteem.
Early recognition and appropriate interventions help learners to reach their potential in these cases. Individuals with dyslexia and dyspraxia can have good days and bad days and both children and adults often show a discrepancy between their oral ability and their written work.
This can lead to them being unfairly labelled as not trying or lazy or unco-operative where a specific learning difficulty has not been recognised. Written work may also be poorly presented. They may have difficulty copying from the board.
Students who struggle to write things down may always struggle with writing.
Learning to touch-type so that writing becomes automatic, and applying this skill to note taking and preparing assignments by computer, can be extremely helpful.
Did you know that high school students with specific learning difficulties who can type faster than they write may be permitted to use laptops in GCSE exams? Helpful intervention for improved literacy and writing The dyslexia friendly Touch-type Read and Spell Computer Course helps student develop and improve literacy and self-esteem by teaching touch-typing in a unique way, so that their writing can become automatic.
A study conducted by Nottingham Dyslexia Association, which involved both dyslexic and dyspraxic students, found the following: They are the fiddlers in the classroom whose legs tap the chair or who doodle on books. These tactile learners show impressive touch-typing skills and increased concentration.
Of all the students these reap the most rewards both parental admiration and self-esteem. Perhaps sitting still, paying attention, concentrating and achieving are new experiences.Dyspraxia is an impairment in the way the brain processes information.. It is a brain-based condition which makes it hard to plan and coordinate physical movement.
Dyspraxia is associated with difficulties in gross and fine motor skills, perception, memory, attention and social skills. Reading and spelling Children with dyspraxia may have difficulties with reading and spelling.
Limited concentration and poor listening skills, and literal use of language may have an effect on reading and spelling . Dyspraxia is characterized by difficulty with motor skills and may make it hard for students to use scissors, perform routine tasks such as tying shoes and zipping up a backpack or hold a pen or pencil in writing.
Both dyslexia and dyspraxia are learning difficulties that can cause children and adults to struggle at school—so what’s the difference between them?
In general, a key indicator of dyslexia is to do with literacy skills such as reading, writing and spelling. Reading and spelling Children with dyspraxia may have difficulties with reading and spelling. Limited concentration and poor listening skills, and literal use of language may have an effect on reading and spelling .
Children with Apraxia and Reading, Writing, and Spelling Difficulties By while others have a difficulty pronouncing speech at an articulatory output level (on the right hand side of the model) even though they know the words involved perfectly well.
Professor Bill Wells and is currently writing a book on persisting speech difficulties.