Youth[ edit ] Rousseau was born in Genevawhich was at the time a city-state and a Protestant associate of the Swiss Confederacy. SinceGeneva had been a Huguenot republic and the seat of Calvinism. Five generations before Rousseau, his ancestor Didier, a bookseller who may have published Protestant tracts, had escaped persecution from French Catholics by fleeing to Geneva inwhere he became a wine merchant.
Does having gay parents affect a child's mental health and growth? Can education and socialization be decreased with the presence of gay parents? How could it be possible that children are not affected by having two parents of the same sex?
Doesn't this cause some gender confusion for the child? How can a child develop properly without the experience of both a male and female role model?
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Will the child be at risk for molestation of a homosexual parent? A female teaches the child how to love, be caring, and offers a maternal nurturing that only a mother can give while a male teaches a child to be strong, disciplined, and offers a paternal upbringing.
Don't children need both of these gender advantages to be a straight, gender stable child? If this balance is broken, is it impossible for a child to be attracted strictly to the opposite sex?
Will all children of same sex marriages become homosexual themselves in the future, or are people born homosexuals?
Is there a hormonal imbalance in gay men and women? There would have to be some type of female hormone that homosexual males have an abnormal amount of to become gay, and the females would have to possess a high level of male hormone to be a lesbian. Do genetics have anything to do with whether or not a person is gay?
If so, how would we ever be able to tell if homosexuality is an inborn trait or is simply caused by the upbringing of a child? Homosexual children are born to heterosexual parents every day. So, why would a homosexual parent have to have a heterosexual child?
And does it make a difference if the child is adopted or born through a surrogate with either the father or the mother being gay and looking to raise the child with their gay partner?
Review of Literature A study was done with a two year old boy who was withdrawn in class. It was noted that he was raised by two lesbian women. Perrin of the New England Medical Center reports, "There is extensive scientific evidence that these children encounter no increased risks in their educational, cognitive, emotional, or sexual development compared with children who grow up with heterosexual parents.
According to Perrinthere are definitely differences in the life experiences of heterosexual and homosexual parented children, but these include no negative effects. It has been shown through research that children raised by homosexual parents are more nurturing, recognize emotional situations, and show less aggressive interactions.
The way that parents communicate and interact with their children shows much more effect on development than the sexual preference of their parents, claims Perrin The question is raised as to whether a child needs a mother and father role model.
Conservatives say 'yes,' but all of the research that they have acquired is based "fellow conservative groups. In fact, gay parenting is supported by many psychological organizations like the National Association of Social Workers and the American Psychological Association.
Children tend not to be confused by their gender role. In a study, research showed that 20 of 21 children correctly identified a favorite toy consistent with their gender.
There is no more male hormone in a lesbian than in a heterosexual female. This was proven by a study done with 12 heterosexually parented children and 12 homosexually parented children. The study showed that the children "did not differ in masculinity or androgyny.
In fact, the study found that there is a greater femininity in the children of homosexual females than in heterosexual parents. Children seem not to be damaged by the role of gay parents.Are the outcomes for children of gay, lesbian, or bisexual parents in general the same as those for heterosexual parents?
That controversial question is discussed here in a detailed review of the social science literature in three parts: (1) stability of same-sex parental relationships, (2) child outcomes, and (3) child outcomes in same-sex adoption.
Metaphor, Morality, and Politics, Or, Why Conservatives Have Left Liberals In the Dust. The Supreme Court Kills the 'Gay Marriage Is Bad for Kids' Argument The majority opinion in United States v.
Windsor said that denying gay couples the right to marry is harmful to children. Why Gay Parents May Be the Best Parents.
That's a speculation, she said, but if lesbian parents have to really plan to have a child, it's even harder for gay men. Those who decide to do it are. "Only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California." These are the words that appear on Proposition 8 in California, a ballot initiative that will be voted on in November to ban same-sex marriage forever in the state.
Gay men can do virtually the same thing by using a surrogate to carry a child born from one partner's sperm and a donor egg. In states that allow it, same-sex couples sometimes adopt children jointly, so that both partners are legal parents from the beginning.