In the beginning, I was afraid. Later, I was greedy and reckless.
Precursors[ edit ] The dream of artificial intelligence was first thought of in Indian philosophies like those of Charvakaa famous philosophy tradition dating back to BCE and surviving documents around BCE. McCorduck writes " artificial intelligence in one form or another is an idea that has pervaded intellectual history, a dream in urgent need of being realized," expressed in humanity's myths, legends, stories, speculation and clockwork automatons.
Artificial intelligence in fiction Mechanical men and artificial beings appear in Greek mythssuch as the golden robots of Hephaestus and Pygmalion's Galatea. The faithful believed that craftsman had imbued these figures with very real minds, capable of wisdom and emotion— Hermes Trismegistus wrote that "by discovering the true nature of the gods, man has been able to reproduce it.
The study of mechanical—or "formal"—reasoning has a long history. ChineseIndian and Greek philosophers all developed structured methods of formal deduction in the first millennium BCE. For it would suffice to take their pencils in hand, down to their slates, and to say each other with a friend as witness, if they liked: In the 20th century, the study of mathematical logic provided the essential breakthrough that made artificial intelligence seem plausible.
Building on Frege 's system, Russell and Whitehead presented a formal treatment of the foundations of mathematics in their masterpiece, the Principia Mathematica in Inspired by Russell 's success, David Hilbert challenged mathematicians of the s and 30s to answer this fundamental question: This photo has been artificially darkened, obscuring details such as the women who were present and the IBM equipment in use.
First, they proved that there were, in fact, limits to what mathematical logic could accomplish. But second and more important for AI their work suggested that, within these limits, any form of mathematical reasoning could be mechanized.
The Church-Turing thesis implied that a mechanical device, shuffling symbols as simple as 0 and 1, could imitate any conceivable process of mathematical deduction. The key insight was the Turing machine —a simple theoretical construct that captured the essence of abstract symbol manipulation.
This invention would inspire a handful of scientists to begin discussing the possibility of thinking machines. In the early 19th century, Charles Babbage designed a programmable computer the Analytical Enginealthough it was never built.
Ada Lovelace speculated that the machine "might compose elaborate and scientific pieces of music of any degree of complexity or extent". The latter two of these machines were based on the theoretical foundation laid by Alan Turing  and developed by John von Neumann.
In the s and 50s, a handful of scientists from a variety of fields mathematics, psychology, engineering, economics and political science began to discuss the possibility of creating an artificial brain.
The field of artificial intelligence research was founded as an academic discipline in Cybernetics and early neural networks[ edit ] The earliest research into thinking machines was inspired by a confluence of ideas that became prevalent in the late s, s, and early s.
Recent research in neurology had shown that the brain was an electrical network of neurons that fired in all-or-nothing pulses.
Norbert Wiener 's cybernetics described control and stability in electrical networks. Claude Shannon 's information theory described digital signals i. Alan Turing 's theory of computation showed that any form of computation could be described digitally.
The close relationship between these ideas suggested that it might be possible to construct an electronic brain. Grey Walter 's turtles and the Johns Hopkins Beast.
These machines did not use computers, digital electronics or symbolic reasoning; they were controlled entirely by analog circuitry. They were the first to describe what later researchers would call a neural network.
Turing's test[ edit ] In Alan Turing published a landmark paper in which he speculated about the possibility of creating machines that think. If a machine could carry on a conversation over a teleprinter that was indistinguishable from a conversation with a human being, then it was reasonable to say that the machine was "thinking".
This simplified version of the problem allowed Turing to argue convincingly that a "thinking machine" was at least plausible and the paper answered all the most common objections to the proposition.
Symbolic reasoning and the Logic Theorist[ edit ] When access to digital computers became possible in the middle fifties, a few scientists instinctively recognized that a machine that could manipulate numbers could also manipulate symbols and that the manipulation of symbols could well be the essence of human thought.
This was a new approach to creating thinking machines. Simon created the " Logic Theorist " with help from J. The program would eventually prove 38 of the first 52 theorems in Russell and Whitehead's Principia Mathematicaand find new and more elegant proofs for some.
The proposal for the conference included this assertion:This is a basic tutorial for simple quilting in the hoop without marking your quilt top. It is good practice if you ever want to move on to doing special designs in specific shapes, blocks and spaces.
I’m a researcher and educator based in Ontario, Canada, with a keen interest in collaborative inquiry learning approaches incorporating digital technologies, and the design of constructivist learning environments to support this.
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The fire burned brightly, and the soft radiance of the incandescent lights in the lilies of silver caught the bubbles that flashed and passed in our glasses. Virus. the fruit probably sat in cold storage sometimes i wish a time machine is just around the corner for a year before Time.
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